Structure and correctness of writing a research paper

How to evoke a creative mood (find “inspiration”) when writing an essay? First, there must be an idea, and for this, we must learn to be critical of specific phenomena and scientific facts (our idea as a different view of solving the problem) and be interested in some well-known idea that needs further development (our idea as an optimistic position and focus on the improvement of what is already known). Secondly, it is important to be able to set priorities in their teaching and research activities (to create the right structure of academic work). Third, learn to organize your time so that it is enough for real creative activity (unfortunately, we spend a lot of time on others).

Essay analysis showed that students often have difficulty formulating the purpose, structure, and objectives of the work, drawing up an essay plan and other small details. The structure of a research essay can also give the university lecturer an early idea of ​​the final product.

Exemplary structure of a research paper

The structure of the research work may consist only of notes or be very detailed. Your teacher can give some advice on the type of structure they want to see; if not, choose the one that suits you best.

In the process of working on the structure of the future essay can be divided into four stages:

Stage 1. Introductory stage of writing the structure – choosing a topic, compiling a list of references for study, the beginning of its study, developing a plan, and writing an introduction.

Stage 2. The main stage of writing the structure – a detailed study of the literature, work on the content and conclusions of the essay.

Stage 3. The final stage of writing the structure – the design of the essay, self-critical assessment of its content, and correction of shortcomings.

Stage 4. Essay defense (during a seminar, at a student conference).

How to write a sample structure for a research paper

Choosing an essay topic

To write an interesting and fascinating essay, in addition to the correct structure, it is important to formulate your research problem, and then choose a similar topic from a list recommended by your teacher, or suggest your own.

In determining the topic should also take into account the availability of information on this topic in the scientific literature. To do this, first, consult with the teacher; secondly, you can refer to library catalogs (systematic and alphabetical), use bibliographic indexes (in particular, publish an index of articles for a certain year in the last issue of a scientific journal) and electronic catalogs, as well as search engines on the Internet, which is convenient and effective in the teaching of the modern student. However, do not try to just “download” the finished project, which has been found in numerous collections of virtual networks. Apart from self-deception, strengthening the inferiority complex, and possibly gaining recognition for recognition, such as “academic work” will have no benefit for the development of your personality as a future researcher.

Follow these steps to begin writing a structure for your research work:

  • Decide on a topic;
  • Write down any ideas you want to include or discuss in your academic work;
  • Organize related ideas into subgroups;
  • Prioritize your ideas – what should the reader read first? What is the most important? Which idea will complete the job most effectively?;
  • Create effective, exciting headlines and subheadings;
  • Format the structure as required.

Formatting a research plan

There are three different types of study plan: alphanumeric contours, complete sentences, and decimal contours. The differences are in the formatting and writing style.

The text contains short notes, not whole sentences.


  • Paragraph
  • The first point
  • Subparagraph
  • Subparagraph 1
  • Complete sentence

Essentially the same as an alphanumeric plan, but with text in full sentences, not in short paragraphs.


The first paragraph of the research article

The first evidence to support the main argument

Subsection concerning the evidence presented in the scientific material.

An additional item that concludes the discussion of scientific evidence related to the topic of the essay

Decimal plan

The decimal plan of scientific work is similar in format to the alphanumeric plan but has a different numbering system: 1, 1.1, 1.2, etc. The text is saved as short notes, not whole sentences.


1 Content, first paragraph

1.1 Item one

1.1.1 Subparagraph of the first paragraph

1.1.2 Subparagraph of the first paragraph

1.2 The second point

Language in the structure of scientific work

To write an effective scientific work, pay attention to the language (stylistic sentences, their competent construction). This is especially true if you show your academic work to a lecturer from your university, it is necessary to obtain a high final grade.

There are four main ideas to follow when writing a research paper: parallelism, coordination, subordination, and division.

Parallelism – follow the grammatical form of writing a scientific work

Coordination – be aware of the importance of each item

Subordination – writing in the work from general information to small details

Distribution – Divide the information into subsections

Your headlines should be divided into two or more sections. The number of sections you can include under each heading is not limited, but keep in mind that at the writing stage the information will be broken down into paragraphs, so do not overdo it with the number of sections.

Essay structure

The structure of the essay includes the following:

  • title page;
  • plan;
  • introduction;
  • the main part (chapters, paragraphs, and subsections);
  • conclusions;
  • list of used sources;
  • applications.

Work on the structure of academic work

Planning an essay should begin at the stage of studying the literature. A plan is an accurate and concise list of entries in the order in which they appear in the resume when you open the topic. The draft plan will be supplemented and changed during the works.

There are two main types of plans: simple and complex (extended). Simply put, the content of the essay is divided into paragraphs and complex – into chapters and paragraphs and sections. A well-structured essay plan corresponds to the formulated topic, purpose, and objectives of the work. Avoid this disadvantage when the name of the section (item) of the plan repeats the name of the topic (the part is not equal to the whole).